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Key Terms

Adaptation: the process and outcome whereby thinking and feeling persons, as individuals and groups, use conscious awareness and choice to create human and environmental integration

Adaptation Level: adaptation level represents the condition of the life processes described on three levels as integrated, compensatory, and compromised

Adaptation Processes: activity of subsystems for coping of individuals and relational persons

Adaptive Modes: ways of manifesting adaptive processes

Cognator Subsystem: for individuals, a major coping process involving four cognitive-emotive channels: perceptual and information processing, learning, judgment and emotion.

Common Purposefulness: all persons and earth have both unity and diversity; are united in a common destiny; find meaning in mutual relations with each other, the treated world, and a God-figure

Compensatory Adaptation Level: cognator and regulator or stabilizer and innovator are activated by a challenge to the integrated life processes

Compromised Adaptation Level: results from inadequate integrated and compensatory life processes; an adaptation problem

Contextual Stimuli: all other stimuli present in the situation that contribute to the effect of the focal stimulus

Coping Processes: Innate or acquired ways of responding to the changing environment

Cosmic Unity: a philosophic view of reality which stresses the principle that people and earth ahve common patterns and integral relationships

Focal Stimulus: the internal or external stimulus most immediately confronting the human adaptive system

Holism: descriptive of individual and relational adaptive systems; stems from philosophical assumptions of person functioning as wholes in a unified expression of meaningful human behavior; includes common purposefulness and cosmic unity

Humanism: The broad movement in philosophy and psychology that recognized the person and subjective dimensions of the human experience as central to knowing and valuing (Roy, 1988); includes the development of specific schools of thought such as secular, atheistic or Christian humanism.

Innovator Subsystem: pertaining to humans in a group, the internal subsystem that involves structures and processes for change and growth

Integrated Adaptation Level: structures and functions of the life processes are working as a whole to meet human needs

Interdependence: the close relationships of people aimed at satisfying needs for affection, development of relationships, and resources to achieve relational integrity

Regulator Subsystem: for individuals, a major coping process involving the neural, chemical, and endocrine systems

Relational Persons: individuals relating in groups such as families, organizations, communities, and society as a whole; use stabilizer and innovator coping processes; with four adaptive modes of physical, groups identity, role function and interdependence (Hanna & Roy, 2001)

Relativity: refers to the belief that there is no way to determine objective truth or objective morality; subjectivity is emphasized and the truth becomes what is meaningful or significant within a given context, while good means pleasurable or satisfying; person's own thoughts and feelings are final guide to action (Roy, 2000)

Residual Stimulus: an environmental factor within or outside the human system with affects in the current situation that are unclear

Role: the function unit of society; each role exits in relation to another

Self-concept: the composite of beliefs and feelings that is held about oneself at a given time, formed from the internal perception and perceptions of others' reactions

Stabilizer Subsystem: for groups, the subsystem associated with system maintenance and involving established structures, values, and daily activities whereby participants accomplish the purpose of the social system

Stimulus: that which provokes a response, or more generally, the point of interactions of the human system and environment

Veritivity: principle of human nature that affirms a common purposefulness of human existence; components include a) purposefulness of human existence, b) unity of purpose in humankind, c) activity and creativity for the common good, d) value and meaning of life; the richness of rootedness in absolute truth